By George C. Williams
This quantity within the "Oxford sequence in Ecology and Evolution" examines the mechanism and motion of average choice in evolution. Williams deals his personal synthesis of contemporary evolutionary idea - together with discussions of the gene because the unit of choice, clade choice and macroevolution, variety inside of and between populations, statis, and different matters critical to the examine of evolution.
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Extra info for Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges
I suspect that Michod's (1982) requirements are never really met, and seldom closely approximated. Kin selection is a broader and more versatile concept than kin-group selection, as is clear from Michod's comparison. In mammals and some birds females tend to be philopatric so that neighboring adults, even when they do not form persistent kin groups, will often have recent genealogical connections. In both birds and mammals, broods of mixed paternity may be produced. This raises the possibility of the evolution of kin-recognition mechanisms and discrimination between full-sib and half-sib nest mates.
They were not able to determine whether the greater diversity resulted from increased cladogenesis or decreased extinction. Other studies have produced negative or equivocal evidence. Neither Hoffman's (1986) nor Benton's (1987) surveys of the fossil record found any evidence for macroevolutionary effects of clade selection. They conclude that a purely random process of clade branching and extinction could have produced the observed macroevolutionary patterns. Carroll (1988, pp. 576-8) found little indication of clade selection in the history of vertebrates.
These cells seldom overtly compete with each other for transmission in sexual or asexual reproduction. A privileged few are set aside early in development (in many animal groups) and the rest devote themselves entirely to furthering the reproductive interests of the special few. For plants and some animals the distinction between germ line and soma is made on a more continuous and stochastic basis, but ultimately most cells assume purely somatic functions that enable others to form propagules. As long as this cooperation among cells prevails, selection will normally operate between rather than within multicellular organisms.
Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges by George C. Williams