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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century

ISBN-10: 0309085047

ISBN-13: 9780309085045

ISBN-10: 0309500974

ISBN-13: 9780309500975

This is the 1st record of 7 within the demanding situations for the Chemical Sciences within the twenty first Century sequence. The record is predicated on discussions and displays at a workshop, and is meant to assist scientists and investment organizations set brief- and long term study agendas. It specializes in the demanding situations for chemists and chemical engineers with appreciate to probability relief, practise, situational wisdom, and danger neutralization and remediation

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1 An automated rapid-sensing detection system for chemical and biological weapons or precursors in closed containers would enable customs inspectors to ensure that a container’s contents are indeed safe and to ensure the inspectors’ personal safety if contents were a hazardous material. Automation also allows a much larger percentage of containers, if not all containers, to be inspected. This way, chemical and biological—perhaps even nuclear and radiological—weapons contents could be contained, neutralized, and controlled by the proper government authorities before entering the country.

Until very recently, though, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been the only organization interested in vaccines for these types of threats. DOD has spent a large amount of money on the research and development for such vaccines with great success—in the last 8 years or so, approximately 12 new vaccines have been developed and proven effective on rhesus monkeys. To advance development beyond this point becomes difficult, because DOD lacks knowledge and experience with pharmaceutical regulatory issues.

This is particularly important if we are to develop the ability to respond to new threats such as artificially bioengineered diseases and agents. The challenges in detection of biological agents are similar to those facing chemical agent detection. However, biological toxins can be much more toxic on a per-molecule basis than chemical agents and in some cases can be transmitted and amplified from one individual to the next. In addition, it is very difficult to distinguish toxic biological agents from the harmless biological compounds ubiquitous in our environment or from naturally occurring toxic biological agents that are present.

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National Security and Homeland Defense by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century


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