By C. H. Ward
Entire and quantitative, NAPL removing: Surfactants, Foams, and Microemulsions, belongs to a ten-monograph sequence that files the result of the dept of Defense/Advanced utilized know-how Demonstration Facility environmental know-how demonstrations. It provides the result of box demonstrations of cutting edge in situ remediation applied sciences.
In situ surfactant and cosolvent flushing for nonaqueous section beverages constitutes a strategy with the capability to minimize the mass of NAPL - a continuous resource of groundwater infection. This monograph info applied sciences - surfactant/foam and single-phase microemulsion - chosen for his or her power to handle the wanted breakthroughs.
Copiously illustrated with figures and tables, NAPL removing: Surfactants, Foams, and Microemulsions takes you thru the full box demonstration step by step. It describes the advance of the techniques, analyzes the prices, discusses layout concerns, and covers functionality and power program
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Extra info for NAPL Removal Surfactants, Foams, and Microemulsions
Both of these tests were conducted within sheet pile walls that hydraulically isolated the contaminated parts of the alluvial aquifers. , volume of DNAPL per unit pore volume). Although these two tests were of very different sizes (the Laramie test cell had a pore volume of about 500 m3 [140,000 gal] while the Borden cell was only about 10 m3 [2400 gal]), they indicated that a well-characterized site could be substantially cleaned up. 1 shows the results of these and other, more recent tests, and includes as performance criteria the percent reduction in DNAPL mass and the average DNAPL saturation following the surfactant flood.
1 Chemical structure of sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol MA-80I). © 2000 by CRC Press LLC SURFACTANT/FOAM PROCESS DEVELOPMENT 13 availability were also important factors. The anionic nature of the surfactant imparted a control mechanism and lessened the potential for surfactant loss to adsorption. Finally, the FDA food-grade designation was an added bonus for this particular surfactant. 2 Critical Micelle Concentration The CMC is the concentration at which a surfactant begins to form micelles as well as monomers in water.
It may be desirable, for example, to include a period during the last part of surfactant injection where salinity is low enough that contaminant remaining in such depressions can be solubilized into the aqueous surfactant solution. While the test was successful in reducing contaminant content to very low levels, it revealed that better characterization is desirable to better define aquitard contours before injection and extraction wells are drilled. Had more information been available in this case, the wells could have been located to eliminate or minimize contaminant inflow from outside the pattern and to extract from the local depression.
NAPL Removal Surfactants, Foams, and Microemulsions by C. H. Ward