By Frank D. Gunstone
Oils and fat have an enormous impression at the dietary and sensory caliber of many meals. foodstuff brands needs to usually alter lipid elements or components in nutrition to accomplish the suitable stability of actual, chemical and dietary houses. enhancing lipids to be used in meals studies the diversity of lipids to be had, suggestions for his or her amendment and the way they are often utilized in meals items. half 1 studies vegetable, animal, marine and microbial resources of lipids and their constitution. the second one a part of the booklet discusses the variety of innovations for editing lipids resembling hydrogenation, fractionation and interesterification. ultimately, half three considers the wide variety of functions of changed lipids in such parts as dairy and bakery items, confectionary and frying oils. With its wonderful editor and overseas variety of individuals, enhancing lipids to be used in meals can be a typical reference for dairy and different brands utilizing converted lipids.
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However, as already indicated, soybean oil is produced at a higher level than any other oil and is better described as a co-product. The major fatty acids in soybean oil are linoleic (53 %), oleic (23 %), palmitic (11 %), linolenic (8 %) and stearic (4 %) (Wang, 2002). The widelyaccepted view is that this is a healthy oil, low in saturated acids and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic acid. However, attempts to modify this fatty acid composition by partial hydrogenation or by plant breeding suggest that it would be better to have less saturated acids and less linolenic acid.
26 Modifying lipids for use in food This is now the usual way of refining palm oil and increasingly other oils also. It has environmental advantages, not least because it avoids the large aqueous waste stream characteristic of chemical neutralization that raises disposal problems. In order to preserve the oil from oxidative rancidity during transport and storage it may be necessary to add some antioxidant at an appropriate stage in the refining sequence (see Chapter 7). A fuller account of extraction and processing has been provided by Hamm and Hamilton (2000).
2001 2002 2003 Mixed animal fats Lard Tallow Poultry fats Bone fats 1427 1421 1378 543 518 430 368 378 343 181 186 198 106 127 118 Source: Woodgate (2004). 6 % of all animal fats produced (Woodgate, 2004). 9 % of total animal fats and greases produced in the USA. 3 % of poultry meat production. 2 % in 2004. 4 The rendering process Rendering is the general term for a variety of processes applied to obtain animal fats from fatty animal tissue by separating the fat from proteins (mainly connective tissue) and water.
Modifying Lipids for Use in Food by Frank D. Gunstone