By Luuk Ligt, Laurens Ernst Tacoma
Until eventually lately migration didn't occupy a well-liked position at the schedule of scholars of Roman historical past. a variety of forms of circulation within the Roman global have been studied, yet now not lower than the heading of migration and mobility. Migration and Mobility within the Early Roman Empire begins from the idea that state-organised, compelled and voluntary mobility and migration have been intertwined and will be studied jointly. The papers assembled within the ebook faucet into the remarkably huge reservoir of archaeological and textual resources pertaining to numerous forms of circulation through the Roman Principate. an important issues lined are rural-urban migration, labour mobility, relationships among compelled and voluntary mobility, state-organised routine of army devices, and familial and feminine mobility.
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Additional info for Migration and Mobility in the Early Roman Empire
6 ‘Mortality’. Enlightening is the example of St. Petersburg, a retirement community in Florida, put forward by De Vries (1984) 181: in St. Petersburg “it is the migrants to the city – in THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ROME 25 rate and death rate between the area from which the migratory flux comes and the receiving city: we tend to underestimate the death rate and therefore to overestimate the natural increase in the former, and to do the opposite for the latter. 8 It has been argued that what produced a much higher mortality and therefore an imbalance between births and deaths was the incidence of malaria, which either by itself, or in interaction with other diseases, would have been responsible for a very high percentage of deaths in Rome.
In my view this is the most certain indication of the number of citizens permanently residing in Rome at the beginning of the Empire we can get from our evidence; and it also happens to be the maximum estimate of the ‘wider plebs frumentaria’ which Tacoma arrives at, by a different line of reasoning. The second parameter chosen by Tacoma to calculate the number of migrants is the estimated size of the slave population and the proportion of vernae in that population. Here the basis of the exercise is a bottom-up estimate of the average number of slave servants in the houses of the elite and in those of sub-elite slave-owners, estimated at one fifth of all households on the basis of the Egyptian evidence.
Hence, employment opportunities away from their farm brought about the migration of seasonal workers and temporary migrants. Temporary migration, during which people left their homes at the beginning of young adulthood to work in towns and cities, was related to the family cycle, as a result of which some households had too many workers. Finally, and for the present debate most importantly, I argued that the economy of the cities of antiquity was subjected to an annual cycle of expansion and contraction – expansion in the summer-half of the year, contraction during winter.
Migration and Mobility in the Early Roman Empire by Luuk Ligt, Laurens Ernst Tacoma