By K L Murty
Gentle water reactors are the major classification of nuclear energy reactors in operation this day. notwithstanding, getting older and degradation can effect either the functionality and lifelong of elements. wisdom of those components is for that reason severe to the supply of secure, non-stop operation in both the fast or lengthy term. Routes to degree and mitigate those getting older and degradation difficulties, and to evaluate residual lifetime, are severe to the fabrics administration, upkeep and safeguard making plans for the plant.The editor and individuals offer a accomplished and systematic overview of fabrics getting older and degradation mechanisms general in gentle water reactor environments, the categorical results at the major reactor elements, and the acceptable mitigation routes and fabrics administration ways used to deal with those results. half one introduces primary getting older concerns and degradation mechanisms and discusses corrosion in pressurized water reactors and creep deformation of fabrics in gentle water reactors. next sections contemplate fabrics getting older and degradation in particular gentle water reactor elements along the getting older of electrical cables and concentrate on fabrics administration recommendations for mild water reactors, pressurized water reactors and VVER reactors. the realization explores materials-related difficulties confronted via gentle water reactor operators and corresponding examine wishes.
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In addition, a few ppb of zinc can be introduced to mitigate the activation of cobalt. In the secondary circuit, the pH of the boiling water is also made slightly alkaline in both liquid and steam phases to limit corrosion. The original operating chemistry combined ammonia (for its slightly alkaline pH) with phosphate (to buffer the various potential contaminants that may enter the system through the condenser). Current chemistries involve all volatile treatment (AVT) without any phosphate addition in high quality water.
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Fageon, D. Lecharpentier, A. Breuil, V. Derouet, ‘PWSCC of Thermocoax Pressurizer Heaters in Austenitic Stainless Steel and Remedial Actions to preventing SCC,’ 15th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Systems-Water Reactors, Colorado Springs (Colorado), 2011. 22. T. Couvant, L. Legras, F. M. Boursier, Y. Rouillon, ‘Effect of strain-hardening on stress corrosion cracking of AISI 304 L stainless steel in PWR environment at 360°C,’ 12th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Systems-Water Reactors, Snowbird (Utah), 2005.
Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors: Mechanisms and management by K L Murty