Hydrosphere: freshwater systems and pollution - download pdf or read online

By Dana Desonie

ISBN-10: 0816062153

ISBN-13: 9780816062157

Earth is the water planet, yet just a tiny quantity of the planet's water is clean and usable, and water pollutants has turn into a huge predicament as we input the twenty first century. notwithstanding built international locations now control a few pollution and for that reason their waterways are purifier, new chemical compounds are more and more being published into the surroundings, leading to a poisonous soup that could be inflicting cancers, improvement difficulties, and different matters in humans and flora and fauna. And in addition to toxins, overfishing and engineering tasks are destroying freshwater ecosystems. Hydrosphere is a concise exam of the urgent concerns affecting our water offer. This potently written and illustrated new ebook explains how society must undertake a precautionary precept in water issues through higher knowing the implications in their activities prior to, now not after, these activities ensue.

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Example text

There are several types of dams. Check dams prevent flooding in small areas, and diversion dams divert water to irrigate crops. Irrigation, much of it from diversion dams, helps to grow about 40% of the world’s food. Flood control dams, constructed of concrete or huge mounds of rock, gravel, sand, and clay, catch floodwaters. In addition to being used for water storage and flood control, large concrete hydroelectric dams harness ­power. Water rushing through a narrow opening or cascading down a rock face creates a tremendous amount of kinetic energy, the energy that comes from motion.

Rare species, such as the American crocodile, are also found in swamps. Approximately 100,000 square miles (260,000 sq. km) of the United States, particularly in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states, are covered with swamps, although many square miles of swamp have been lost in recent decades. For example, draining and development have reduced the Great Dismal Swamp of southeastern Virginia to less than half its original ­size. Bogs are small lakes that have no inlet or outlet in the form of streams or rivers.

Projects such as dams provide year-round water storage, in addition to flood control, power, and recreational opportunities. In addition, levee construction protects communities from flooding. This chapter also covers how the engineering of waterways has a downside for people and the environment by keeping sediments from replenishing the soil and wetlands. Dam projects can change water conditions 3 36 hydrosphere that cause the loss of native fish species along with the submerging of important environmental and cultural ­resources.

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Hydrosphere: freshwater systems and pollution by Dana Desonie


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