Globalization and the State: Volume I: International by Carlos M. Peláez, Carlos A. Peláez (auth.) PDF

By Carlos M. Peláez, Carlos A. Peláez (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0230228283

ISBN-13: 9780230228283

ISBN-10: 1349301906

ISBN-13: 9781349301904

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Read Online or Download Globalization and the State: Volume I: International Institutions, Finance, the Theory of the State and International Trade PDF

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Extra resources for Globalization and the State: Volume I: International Institutions, Finance, the Theory of the State and International Trade

Example text

An important motivation for the creation of the new international economic institutions was avoiding the repetition of the failures of the Paris conference after World War I and the Great Depression of the 1930s (Boughton 2004). The IMF Various events changed the role of the IMF in the 1990s, according to Krueger (2004). The transition of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries generated the need for assistance of a different nature by the IMF. That group of countries required temporary financing to implement structural reforms that The Official Institutions 23 could permit improved fiscal and economic management.

There has been more recent manipulation of exchange rates because of capital account vulnerabilities. De Rato (2007Jun) informs that the change in the surveillance framework has broad support from industrial, emerging and developing countries. Chapter 5 in Volume II considers the friction over the alleged undervaluation of the Chinese currency to maintain export competitiveness, which the United States finds to be a prime reason for global external imbalances. The World Bank The WB has the same origin as the IMF in the Bretton Woods conference in July 1944.

The IBRD has enjoyed a triple-A rating from credit agencies since 1959. Its borrowing rate is close to that of US treasuries. The high credit rating originates in the capital requirements that are backed by its 184 shareholder governments. An additional source of credit quality is the strong balance sheet of the IBRD, its traditionally excellent financial management and its status of preferred creditor when a country encounters difficulties in meeting obligations. This mechanism of high credit rating coupled with sound management has enabled the taxpayers that contribute to the IBRD to generate over $400 billion of loans with contributed capital of $11 billion since 1946.

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Globalization and the State: Volume I: International Institutions, Finance, the Theory of the State and International Trade by Carlos M. Peláez, Carlos A. Peláez (auth.)


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