Feldman - Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal & Liver PDF

By Feldman - Sleisenger & Fordtran

ISBN-10: 0721689736

ISBN-13: 9780721689739

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102] Three types of NOS are known. Types I and III are also know as endothelial NOS and neuronal NOS and are constitutively active. Small changes in NOS activity can occur through elevations in intracellular calcium. The inducible form of NOS (type II) is apparent only when cells become activated by specific cytokines and inflammation. This form of NOS is capable of producing large amounts of NO and is calcium independent. NOS is often colocalized with VIP and PACAP in neurons of the enteric nervous system.

When gastrointestinal endocrine cells are stimulated, mature hormone is secreted into the paracellular space and is taken up into the bloodstream. For many hormones, such as gastrin and CCK, multiple molecular forms exist in blood and tissues. Although there is only a single gene for these peptides, the different molecular forms result from differences in pretranslational or post-translational processing ( Fig. 13 ). A common mechanism of pretranslational processing includes alternative splicing of mRNA, which generates unique peptides from the same gene.

The two major forms of gastrin are G 34 and G17 , although smaller forms exist. The common feature of all gastrins is an amidated tetrapeptide (Try-Met-Asp-Phe-NH 2 ) carboxyl terminus, which imparts full biologic activity. Modification by sulfation at tyrosine residues produces alternative gastrin forms of equal biologic potency. Most gastrin is produced in endocrine cells of the gastric antrum. [22] Much smaller amounts of gastrin are produced in other regions of the gastrointestinal tract, including the proximal stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and pancreas.

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Gastrointestinal & Liver by Feldman - Sleisenger & Fordtran


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