Evolution (1st Edition) - download pdf or read online

By Lee Alan Dugatkin, Carl T. Bergstrom

ISBN-10: 0393925927

ISBN-13: 9780393925920

Written through lively researchers to give a latest view of the field.
Evolution makes the large topics in evolutionary biology available through introducing them early and integrating them completely. huge, in-depth, present learn examples, an emphasis on challenge fixing, and a gorgeous artwork software have interaction scholars, assisting them to appreciate basic strategies and procedures.

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2002). The entire genomes of both the chimpanzee and the human have now been mapped out in great detail. This allows us to make unprecedented molecular genetic comparisons to examine questions of primate evolution (Mikkelsen et al. 2005; Khaitovich et al. 2006). Tarjei Mikkelsen and his colleagues in the Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium mapped out approximately 95% of the chimpanzee genome (from eight chimpanzees) and compared that with the genome of a small set of humans. 13). When Mikkelsen’s group compared 13,454 pairs of genes in humans and chimpanzees, they began by calculating how much we would expect the human and chimp genomes to diverge due to the accumulation of neutral mutations— that is, changes that would have no effect on fitness.

This bacterium is common in the intestines of livestock, where it causes no symptoms in animals, but it can cause acute food poisoning in humans who acquire it by eating contaminated meat. At the start of the process, the gut of a single human patient houses millions or even billions of Campylobacter cells that are exposed to ciprofloxacin. Early on, the antibiotic may be deadly to A B these cells. But with vast numbers of bacterial cells exposed to the antibiotic, and with each cell dividing quickly, it is only a matter of time (weeks, months, perhaps years) before a mutation appears that creates a strain of Campylobacter cells that are somewhat resistant to our antibiotic.

Divergence is generally low, but varies across locations. Adapted from Mikkelsen et al. (2005). 13 Human–chimp divergence rates. 020 Human–chimpanzee divergence that accounted for differences between the human and chimp genomes that were not due to natural selection. Once neutral genetic differences were accounted for, Mikkelsen and his colleagues could search for evidence of divergence between chimps and humans that was due to natural selection. To do this, they examined whether some genes changed at higher rates than expected for neutral genes.

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Evolution (1st Edition) by Lee Alan Dugatkin, Carl T. Bergstrom

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