By Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Paru en 1762, le Contrat social, en affirmant le principe de souveraineté du peuple, a constitué un tournant décisif pour l. a. modernité et s'est imposé comme un des textes majeurs de los angeles philosophie politique. Il a aussi acquis le statut de monument, plus célèbre que connu, plus révéré - ou honni - qu'interrogé. Retrouver, dans les formules fameuses et les pages d'anthologie, le mouvement de l. a. réflexion et les questions vives qui nourrissent une œuvre beaucoup plus problématique qu'affirmative, c'est découvrir une pensée qui se tient au plus près des préoccupations d'aujourd'hui : remark intégrer les intérêts de tous dans l. a. détermination de l'intérêt commun ? remark lutter contre l. a. pente de tout gouvernement à déposséder les citoyens de los angeles souveraineté ? remark former en chacun ce sentiment d'obligation sans lequel le lien social se défait ?
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Extra info for Du contrat social
The expression that we have rendered as “share the - autoi - nemesthai. ” It is essential at any rate that the human community comes to be defined here, in contrast to the animal community, through a living - acquires here a technical meaning) that together (syzen is not defined by the participation in a common substance, but rather by a sharing that is purely existential, a con-division that, so to speak, lacks an object: friendship, as the con-sentiment of the pure fact of being. Friends do not share something (birth, law, place, taste): they are shared by the experience of friendship.
According to Roman law, objects that belonged in some way to the gods were considered sacred or What Is an Apparatus? religious. As such, these things were removed from free use and trade among humans: they could neither be sold nor given as security, neither relinquished for the enjoyment of others nor subjected to servitude. Sacrilegious were the acts that violated or transgressed the special unavailability of these objects, which were reserved either for celestial beings (and so they were properly called “sacred”) or for the beings of the netherworld (in this case, they were simply called “religious”).
What remains unlived therefore is incessantly sucked back toward the origin, without ever being able to reach it. The present is nothing other than this unlived element in everything that is lived. That which impedes access to the present is precisely the mass of what for some reason (its traumatic character, its excessive nearness) we have not managed to live. The attention to this “unlived” is the life of the contemporary. And to be contempo- What Is the Contemporary? rary means in this sense to return to a present where we have never been.
Du contrat social by Jean-Jacques Rousseau