By Herbert Butterfield, Martin Wright
Booklet by way of Herbert Butterfield, Martin Wright
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Extra info for Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics
Book II, ch. i , section i. 4 . G R O T I A N C O N C E P T I O N OF I N T E R N A T I O N A L S O C I E T Y 55 causes of war to three : defence, the recovery of property and the infliction of punishment. Since the First World War the Grotian doctrine of a distinction between just and unjust causes of war, and of the limitation of lawful causes of war to the former, has been written into positive international law. The League of Nations Covenant, the Paris Pact and the United Nations Charter all reject the older doctrine of an unqualified prerogative of states to resort to war ; and all present war as something which can be legitimate only when it is 'the means by which the law is upheld, whether such war is undertaken on the independent decision of particular states or on the authority of bodies, such as the United Nations Security Council, deemed to represent the society of nations as a whole.
He devotes a chapter to the considera tion of 'Doubtful Causes of War', and stipulates that in addition to a 1 Prolegomena, para. 25. Book II, ch. xxii. 8 Book II, ch. xxii, section xii . 6 Book II, ch. xxii, section ix. 1 In another chapter of 'Warnings not to Undertake War Rashly' he urges that war ought not to be �ndertaken for every just cause, and in particular that 'war is not to be undertaken, unless of necessity. '11 All these restrictions are consonant with the purpose Grotius states in the Prolegomena for undertaking to write on the subject : that he had observed throughout the Christian world 'a lack of restraint in relation to war, such as even barbarous races should be ashamed of; I observed that men rush to arms for slight causes, or no cause at all .
The international society described by the international lawyers and the theorists of balance of power is one in which war has a permanent and perhaps even a necessary pla�. The argument for proceeding_from anarchy to government may therefore be stated, as Kant states it, in terms of the possibility and desirability of perpetual peace. It is a facile view according to which a universal state would abolish war because war is a relationship between sovereign states and sovereign states would have been abolished.
Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics by Herbert Butterfield, Martin Wright