By Syed Farid Alatas
The truth that the Malaysian country has controlled to take care of a comparatively democratic regime, whereas an authoritarian regime got here to energy in Indonesia hasn't ever been the point of interest of old and comparative research regardless of yes cultural, social, and historic affinities among those international locations. This learn seems at how the interaction of 3 elements, that's, elite team spirit, inner kingdom energy and armed resistance, ended in diversified results: authoritarian and democratic post-colonial states in Indonesia and Malaysia respectively. The old historical past is gifted to evaluate the effect of colonialism on pre-capitalist society in those colonies. this gives the context during which to appreciate the advance of the Indonesian and Malaysian states by way of variations within the measure of elite solidarity, nation energy, and the character of city and rural resistance opposed to the kingdom. during this manner various paths to nation varieties should be mapped.
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Additional info for Democracy and Authoritarianism in Indonesia and Malaysia: The Rise of the Post-Colonial State
6) the non-capitalist path of development. 1 1950 1955 1960 1965 a Gross domestic product per capita ($US) Indonesia Malaysia 48 69 82 82 208" 226 272 for 1957 Source: Arthur S. Banks, Cross-Polity Time Series Data, Cambridge MA, The MIT Press, 1971, pp. 260, 262. There are several classic studies on the development of democracies in that part of the Third World which experienced decolonization after the Second World War. Most of these studies concentrate on economic determinants of democracy in the sense that, as the economic sources of a society are transferred to the bourgeoisie and modern labour force, the state is pressured into granting political rights and Iiberties.
In Malaysia. on the other hand, the most serious ethnic conflicts are between the Malays and Chinese that belong to two very distinct civilizations. let alone ethnic or linguistic groups. In spite of the comparatively high degree of ethnic pluralism, Malaysia has managed to maintain democratic institutions, while Indonesia has not. This is not to say that ethnolinguistic or cultural pluralism. then. is not a factor that explains the different outcomes in post-colonial state forms in Malaysia and Indonesia.
The indigenous elite, through which the colonial powers ruled the colonies by the method of indirect rule, were educated in the Western tradition and took up positions in the colonial administration. They strived for the democratic ideals in which they were nurtured and, in the struggle against colonialism, used the language of the oppressors. Because of these circumstances, the democratic system was the one they knew best and, in a sense, was what post-colonial states found themselves under upon independence.
Democracy and Authoritarianism in Indonesia and Malaysia: The Rise of the Post-Colonial State by Syed Farid Alatas