By Ranjit B Naik
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Extra info for Cracking the Code: Financial Statements Explained
Tangible assets are assets that one can generally touch and feel and include the company’s land, buildings, plant, equipment, stocks or raw materials or finished goods, amounts owed by customers and the company’s cash holdings. Intangible assets are assets that exist only on paper but are deemed, nevertheless, to have value. Such assets include goodwill, trademarks, patents and copyrights. The different types of tangible and intangible assets are described more fully later in this chapter. Liabilities are amounts owed by the company to outside parties such as suppliers of goods and services and to banks and other lenders.
As mentioned earlier, there are a number of synonymous terms used to describe this interest. The items in this category explain how the owners’ financial stake in the company is built up over time. Share capital Share capital refers to the capital invested in the business by its owners, in this case its shareholders. Investors will have purchased shares in the company when it was first created or when it was floated on a stock market. In time the company may provide opportunities for its shareholders to purchase more shares or even to sell part of their shareholdings back to the company.
When a company issues bonds, it is borrowing from investors instead of from its bank. ) Rather than signing a loan agreement, the company will execute an appropriate agreement governing the terms of the bond issue. The bonds issued under the agreement are in effect negotiable loan instruments. In the United Kingdom, bonds are typically issued in units having a face value of £100, while in the United States, the usual unit is US$1,000. The bonds offer a fixed coupon or interest rate. Interest on bonds may be payable quarterly, half-yearly or annually and is calculated by applying the coupon to the face value of the bond.
Cracking the Code: Financial Statements Explained by Ranjit B Naik