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By Panotopoulos, G

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However here we shall discuss only the first case. For spontaneous breaking, the lagrangian is supersymmetric as given in the last subsection. But the generators Qα fail to annihilate the vacuum. Instead, they produce a spin-half field, which may be either a chiral field ψα or a gauge field λα . The condition for spontaneous susy breaking is therefore to have a nonzero vacuum expectation value for {Qα , ψβ } or {Qα , λβ }. The former quantity is defined by Eq. 34), and the latter by Eq. 38). The quantities ∂µ φ and Fµν contain derivatives of fields, and are supposed to vanish in the vacuum.

Heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos can also explain the smallness of the light neutrino masses via the see-saw mechanism. 3 Inflation So far we have described what is known as the standard cosmology. This framework is a towering achievement, describing to great accuracy the physical processes leading to the present day universe. However, there remain outstanding issues in cosmology. Many of these come under the heading of initial condition problems and require a more complete description of the sources of energy density in the universe.

143) (The gauge group of the standard model is, strictly speaking, [SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1)]/Z6 .

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Cosmological evolution in brane-worlds with large transverse dimensions: Inflation and dark matter by Panotopoulos, G

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