By Gonul Kaletunc, Kenneth J. Breslauer
"Characterization of Cereals and Flours" is a cutting-edge reference that information the most recent advances to signify the consequences of producing tactics and garage stipulations at the thermal, mechanical, and structural homes of cereal flours and their items - interpreting the impact of moisture absorption, garage temperature, baking, and extrusion processing on flour and cereal product texture, shelf-life, and caliber. The e-book discusses the impression of additions on pre- and publish processed nutrients biopolymers; the advance of databases and building of country diagrams to demonstrate the country and serve as of cereal flours prior to, in the course of, and after construction; and the present options in photo research, mild and electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy used to research the microstructure of cereal items. It additionally discusses the equipment used to optimize processing parameters and formulations to supply end-products with fascinating sensory and textural homes; the shelf lifetime of cereal items; and the relationships among the sensory and actual features of cereal meals.
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Additional info for Characterization of Cereals and Flours Properties Analysis and Applications
If the experimental time is too short for the molecules to adjust to the changes in temperature, the glass transition is observed (34). In DSC, an overly fast scanning rate can result in an overestimated Tg value during heating and an underestimated Tg value during cooling. Furthermore, because they are not at equilibrium, if the glasses are prepared at different cooling rates, each will have a different free energy state. Even glasses with identical chemical structure and molecular weight but different thermal history might display different Tg values.
It should be emphasized that for proteins, in addition to molecular weight, primary (amino acid sequence) and secondary (α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, random coil) structure are expected to inﬂuence the Tg . Lillie and Goslin (29) state that the heterogeneity in protein structure due to nonuniform amino acid distribution may create microenvironments with various thermal stabilities that manifest themselves as multiple or broad glass transitions. Although the correlation between molecular weight and dry Tg is well established for carbohydrates, the Tg of like-molecular-weight carbohydrates with different chemical structures differ (16).
44. G ten Brinke, FE Karasz, TS Ellis. Depression of glass transition temperatures of polymer networks by diluents. Macromolecules 16:244–249, 1983. 45. MT Kalichevsky, EM Jaroszkiewicz, JMV Blanshard. A study of the glass transition of amylopectin–sugar mixtures. Polymer 34:346–358, 1993. 46. G Kaletunc¸. FTIR microspectroscopy of wheat extrudate compositional microstructure. IFT Annual Meeting Chicago, abs 60–10, 1999. 47. J Antila, K Seiler, P Linko. Production of ﬂat bread by extrusion cooking using different wheat/rye ratios, protein enrichment and grain with poor baking ability.
Characterization of Cereals and Flours Properties Analysis and Applications by Gonul Kaletunc, Kenneth J. Breslauer