By Andrea Righi (auth.)
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Extra info for Biopolitics and Social Change in Italy: From Gramsci to Pasolini to Negri
Wages hide the fact that a large share of the workers’ labor is unpaid. This unremunerated part of production constitutes the capitalist proﬁt, and Factory Councils, Fordism, and Gramsci ● 31 Marx calls it surplus-value. For the German philosopher, capital’s incessant process of transformation and innovation is marked by the need to extract more surplus-value. Since the mere extensions of working time—what Marx calls the extraction of absolute surplus-value—has ﬁxed limits, the capitalist needs to increase productivity by means of technical advancements—what Marx calls the extraction of relative surplus-value.
To be sure, the latter are still an operating element in Gramsci’s reﬂection, but the context has radically changed. It is now within new coordinates that theory of praxis must reinscribe revolution. What Is Fordism? In its fragmentary form, the reﬂection on “Americanism and Fordism” is an analytical inquiry into the new organization of labor (Taylorism), the reorganization of the productive system and its ideological apparatus (Fordism) that was brought about ﬁrst in the United States and later, in a less homogeneous way, in Europe.
The fact that the supposedly naturalizing power of sexuality is still so central is more proof that we are part of a generalized bourgeois society than the conﬁrmation of Gramsci’s Puritanism. Still there is more. 116 Technology, just like sexuality, is a branch of those multifaceted relations that humans develop, but neglect to universalize and thus give rise to their nonoppressive form. Their potential universalizing force is reduced to a partiality, unrecognizable from its scope and use. Failing to gain access to its universal potential, humans became estranged from their own creation and among themselves.
Biopolitics and Social Change in Italy: From Gramsci to Pasolini to Negri by Andrea Righi (auth.)