Read e-book online Biochemical Evolution PDF

By Marcel Florink (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0123955211

ISBN-13: 9780123955210

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It is also possible to demonstrate in the nerve ganglion-neural gland complex of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis three active principles of the posterior hypophysis of vertebrates: the pressure, the melanophore dilating and oxytocic factors (Bacq and Florkin, 6). , 165) which act on the external genital organs of mammals. Substances with similar activity are found in different invertebrates. Without doubt we are dealing here with growth hormones upon which evolution has conferred a new role. The complex endocrine relations between the organs of higher vertebrates are not different from the particular instances where metabolic products of one organ may exert an influence upon the function of another organ.

By the action of the arginase enzyme, a molecule of urea is split off from arginine whereby ornithine is reclaimed and becomes again the starting point of the cycle. The cycle may be summed up in the following scheme: Urea< χ ^ > Ornithine + H 20 (Arginase) - Arginine 1^ H 20 + C02 + NH3 Citrulline - H 20 J + NH3 Briefly, then, the protein metabolism of mammals has ammonia and urea as its ultimate products, the urea being in great preponderance. For this reason mammals are said to be ureotelic.

However, the hemoglobins which are dissolved in the plasma also have molecular weights of about 422,000 or more (the hemoglobin of the Chironomus larva is an exception to this rule). TABLE X (Svedberg, 263) Oxygen carriers Hemoglobin of Lamperta Hemoglobin of Area ) Hemoglobin of Chironomus J Hemoglobin of Mammals Hemoglobin of Sipunculus Hemoglobin of Daphnia ) Hemocyanin of Pandalus \ Hemocyanin of Palinurus J Hemocyanin of Nephrops Hemocyanin of Homarus Hemoglobin of Planorbis ] Hemocyanin of Calorcaris J Hemocyanin of Octopus) Hemocyanin of Eledone j Hemoglobin of Arenicola Chlorocruorine of Spirographis Hemocyanin of Rossia Hemoglobin of Lumbricus Hemocyanin of Helix \ Hemocyanin of Busy con j Localization I = intracellular Ε = extracellular Mol.

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Biochemical Evolution by Marcel Florink (Auth.)

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