By Ralph I. Dorfman (Eds.)
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It should also be noted that, for maximal efficiency in simultaneous tests, although not usually for maximum ease of computation with most designs, there should be more test objects on the standard prepa ration than on each unknown. If Ν is the number of unknowns, times the number of observations on any one unknown should be made with the standard. W i t h any but simple or special designs, it is easier to forego this advantage for the others consequent upon more balanced assays. E. F I D U C I A L L I M I T S OF E R R O R Until the paper b y Irwin ( 1 9 4 3 ) , it was not c o m m o n l y realized that the formula using SM and t as a b o v e is misleading when calculat ing limits of error of M, unless b/s^ exceeds about 8, when some 5 % error is involved at the most.
In an a 4-point design could be a c c o m m o d a t e d b y a 4 X 4 Latin by assay, square, with 4 test objects per dose, a 6-point design b y a square such as that in Fig. 3, when the three doses each of the standard and would be allotted at random to the letter A - F , if rows unknown represented, say, litters and columns order of infection. W h e n the same test o b j e c t can be used repeatedly, it m a y form a row or column of such a square. Greater numbers of test objects per dosage groups m a y be desirable, if so, several w a y s of doubling-up or more are available.
From Claringbold et al. (1953). expected to give 0 or 100% responses. Then doses of Xi and X2 can be given which avoid these regions, as do the solid dots in the figure. The analysis of variance is treated in detail b y Claringbold et al (1953) and presents no difficulties; the following example is taken from the same paper ( T a b l e X X I V ) . T h i s table shows the effect of the time interval (Xi) and dosage of estrone (Xo) or the response 1. 67 20 45 50 70 1 o 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 of 30 55 60 70 25 30 6) 85 ° From Claringbold et al 15 30 35 65 (1953).
Bioassay by Ralph I. Dorfman (Eds.)