By Tatyana P. Soubbotina
How will we evaluate the degrees of improvement attained by means of diversified nations? And what does it take to make improvement sustainable?
This ebook bargains no uncomplicated solutions to those complicated questions. as an alternative, the authors motivate readers to hunt their very own recommendations through examining and synthesizing details on a variety of severe improvement concerns together with inhabitants progress, financial progress, fairness, poverty, schooling, future health, industrialization, urbanization, privatization, exchange, weather swap, and extra.
The ebook, which attracts on facts released through the realm financial institution, is addressed to lecturers, scholars, and all these attracted to exploring problems with international improvement.
This identify is a e-book of the area financial institution Institute -- selling wisdom and studying for a greater international.
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Extra info for Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development
First, economists rank all the individuals or households in a country by their income level, from the poorest to the richest. 1). Next economists plot the shares of GDP received by these groups cumulatively—that is, plotting the income share of the poorest quintile against 20 percent of population, the income share of the poorest quintile and the next (fourth) quintile against 40 percent of population, and so on, until they plot the aggregate share of all five quintiles (which equals 100 percent) against 100 percent of the population.
This phenomenon, called population momentum, will keep birth rates high despite a drop in fertility (see Chapter 3). From a social and economic perspective, a high percentage of children in a population means that a large portion is too young to work and, in the short run, is dependant on those who do. This is the main reason for the relatively high age dependency ratio in most developing coun- 8 HEALTH AND LONGEVITY tries. 5. High-income countries currently face the problem of an aging population— that is, a growing percentage of elderly, nonworking people.
Educated and skilled people are usually able to deliver more output or output that is more valuable in the marketplace, and their employers tend to recognize that fact with higher wages. Economic returns to education are not always the same, however. Returns to education may be lower if: • The quality of education is low or knowledge and skills acquired at 35 BEYOND ECONOMIC GROWTH What are the best ways to build a country’s human capital? • • school do not match market demand. In this case investments in human capital were not efficient enough, resulting in less human capital and lower returns to individuals and society.
Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development by Tatyana P. Soubbotina