By A. Durieux, J.-P. Simon
This booklet illustrates the main tendencies in utilized microbiology examine with speedy or capability purposes. the range of the chapters permits insurance of a big box of functions, resembling meals and healthiness sectors, environmental expertise, and tremendous chemical productions. It comprises particular study papers and assessment papers, and makes an attempt to supply a balanced assurance of assorted sorts of micro-organisms, rather yeast, fungi, and micro organism. It offers result of contemporary researches, that have instant program. viewers: The ebook is meant for examine employees in microbiology, in nutrition fermentation, and in addition to researchers in metabolic engineering. in addition, this publication may be of curiosity to humans from the educational global and the biotechnological undefined.
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Additional resources for Applied Microbiology (Focus on Biotechnology)
Two aspects are now considered : hygiene and the sensory qualities. For a long time oenologists considered lactic acid bacteria only as the agents of malic acid degradation. Even if it is the principal biochemical reaction, bacteria also metabolise many other wine components. The most studied has been citric acid that is transformed into acetic acid and acetonic compounds. 3 g/l of citric acid are metabolised but this is enough to induce sensorial changes due to the production of acetic acid (volatile acidity) and diacetyl which is very aromatic.
The use of special equipment to adjust it to about 20°C is very common and efficient. The wine is heated until malic acid degradation starts. However, in spite of temperature control, malolactic fermentation does not start sometimes due to a very low pH or to unknown reasons. It is not rare for it to occur several months after alcoholic fermentation, generally in May-June following the harvest. This proves that bacteria can adapt their composition and physiology to wine. This of course presents several disadvantages.
The operations that follow grape crushing do not deprive the medium of the natural microflora, since all the parts of the berries skin, pulps and seeds are poured into the vats. Moreover, the process includes several pumping over phases to extract the wine colour, and some of these are done with aeration. It is only when the temperature is too low or if rain has considerably washed the grapes that alcoholic fermentation for red wines may take several days to start. In these cases active dry yeasts are necessary.
Applied Microbiology (Focus on Biotechnology) by A. Durieux, J.-P. Simon