By Bradley Efron, R.J. Tibshirani
Records is a topic of many makes use of and unusually few potent practitioners. the normal street to statistical wisdom is blocked, for many, by means of an impressive wall of arithmetic. The strategy in An creation to the Bootstrap avoids that wall. It palms scientists and engineers, in addition to statisticians, with the computational strategies they should research and comprehend advanced info units.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Bootstrap
Linear? Numerical summary? x, y, sx, sy, and r? Regression line? ST A TIS TIC S IN SUM MA RY Mean (quantitative data) Chap. 18 t= Proportion (categorical data) Chap. 20 z= Compare means (quantitative data) Chap. 19 x ¯−µ √ s/ n One sample Test a claim Significance test t= pˆ − p0 p0(1−p0) n ¯2 ) − (µ1 − µ2 ) (¯ x1 − x s2 1 n1 + s2 2 n2 Two samples Compare proportions (categorical data) pˆ1 − pˆ2 Chap. 21 z= Mean (quantitative data) Chap. 18 s x ¯ ± t∗ √ n Proportion (categorical data) Chap. 20 pˆ ± z ∗ Chap.
Use a pie chart only when you want to emphasize each category’s relation to the whole. 2. Bar graphs represent each category as a bar. The bar heights show the category counts or percents. Bar graphs are easier to make than pie charts and also easier to read. 3 displays two bar graphs of the data on intended majors. 3 Bar graphs of the distribution of intended majors of students entering college. In (a), the bars follow the alphabetical order of fields of study. In (b), the same bars appear in order of height.
20 Although histograms resemble bar graphs, their details and uses are different. A histogram displays the distribution of a quantitative variable. The horizontal axis of a histogram is marked in the units of measurement for 10 5 FIGU R E 1. 1% and 10% foreign-born residents. 4. c01PicturingDistributionsWithGra14 Page 14 8/17/11 9:41:18 PM user-s163 14 CHAP TER 1 • Picturing Distributions with Graphs the variable. A bar graph compares the sizes of different quantities. The horizontal axis of a bar graph need not have any measurement scale but simply identifies the quantities being compared.
An Introduction to the Bootstrap by Bradley Efron, R.J. Tibshirani